Conditions need to be just right for cells to maintain optimum performance and the exquisite mechanisms of the canine ECS have evolved to make adjustments to draw them back to the pre-set zone if they move out of closely defined parameters. The key to understanding the benefits of cannabinoid therapy for dogs is to first review the components of the ECS in canines. Perhaps the most remarkable thing about CBD is the sheer number and variety of its potential therapeutic applications to provide better comfort and care for our canine companions. There’s been an explosion of interest in Cannabidiol in recent years as pet parents everywhere are beginning to discover the infinite health benefits afforded by daily supplementation of CBD for their aging pets. Are you ready to take an even deeper dive into the science of this incredible plant?
Successful completion of all four levels modules confers a total of twelve AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™ and a Certificate in Endocannabinoid Medicine from Cannabis Patient Care. Those purchasing this course are eligible to receive a free digital subscription to Cannabis Patient Care. At Gabriel’s Garden, we’re committed to providing our friends, family, community and customers access to the highest quality CBD at an affordable price. Comprehensive reviews of the safety and adverse effects of CBD, conducted in 2011 and 2017 showed that even chronic use at doses of up to 1.5g/day was safe and well-tolerated with no adverse effects abuse potential or addictive traits.
Since increased AEA levels have been shown to treat anxiety, this may be why CBD has also been linked with anxiety reduction . A growing body of evidence indicates that activation of cannabinoid receptors by endogenous, plant-derived, or synthetic cannabinoids may exert beneficial effects on gastrointestinal inflammation and visceral pain. In 1936, the movie “Reefer Madness” showcased “Marijuana” as a drug that corrupted the minds of its users, enticing them into lust and even murder. The film portrayed users as crazed individuals in the clutches of this relentless drug and society began to demonize cannabis and its consumers. One year after the movie’s release, the US government enacted the Marijuana Tax Act of 1937, and arrests for possession and sale of untaxed cannabis started. After a brief hemp revolution during World War 2, when hemp was grown for fiber for the war effort, the tax revenue after the war was insufficient, and hemp was again grouped with Marijuana and forgotten about.
The Endocannabinoid System: What Nurses Need To Know, An Introduction
It binds near the site of the CB1 receptor to influence signalling by either antagonising or supporting the binding of other ligands like THC and 2-AG. CBD’s widespread biological effects are attributable to its allosteric binding as well as binding to non-cannabinoid receptors such as opioid, serotonin, adenosine and nuclear receptors. Studies have shown that THC and CBD within Cannabis compete with anandamide for binding with non-cannabinoid receptors, thereby inhibiting cellular uptake and catabolism of this endocannabinoid. In other words, phytocannabinoids work in harmony with endocannabinoids to optimise the function of the endocannabinoid system.
As previously mentioned, oral administration due to intrinsic cannabinoid lipophilicity is still a challenge in drug development. Recent pharmacokinetic efforts to improve cannabinoid oral bioavailability include nanoparticle-based formulations or lipid co-administration. This approach may aid not only drug administration but also cannabinoid absorption at specific tissues for particular diseases or symptoms. A) Modulation at CB1 and CB2 receptors (G-prot refers to G protein signaling and β-arr to β-arrestin1 or 2 pathways). Besides the aforementioned multitarget approaches, some ligands have been designed as probes for cannabinoid homo- or heterodimers.
But along with a growing awareness of cannabidiol as a potential health aide, there has also been a proliferation of misconceptions about CBD and cannabis therapeutics. Also in 2010, German researchers reported that CBD stimulates neurogenesis, the growth of new brain cells, in adult mammals. Can provide relief for chronic pain, anxiety, inflammation, depression and many other conditions. Even though the characteristics of CED doesn’t resemble most genetic disorders, it’s still important to consider your family’s health. Research studies indicate that this condition has some form of genetic tendencies. So, if there are people in your family with it, there is a possibility that you might also get it.
Systematic functional profiling of reported cannabinoids as well as design of novel biased ligands is nowadays to be considered in order to find optimized therapeutics for specific pathologies. For instance, the development of CB1 G-protein biased ligands may offer reduced tolerance, opening new avenues for the treatment of chronic diseases. Challenges in the pharmacology of cannabinoids arise from its pharmacokinetics, off-target effects and psychoactive effects. In this context, the current review outlines the novel molecular approaches emerging in the field discussing their clinical potential. Extensive research is currently being conducted to gain a greater understanding of the endocannabinoid system, the roles it plays in health and disease and how phytocannabinoids like CBD interact with it to produce multiple health benefits. Below is just a small selection of some of this important, ongoing research.
Cannabinoids And Disease Moderation
What’s also very important to understand is that by consuming cannabinoids from cannabis we also increase the quantity of both cannabinoid receptors, and our internal endocannabinoids. CB1 receptors are the most abundant cannabinoid receptors in the body, and they are mostly located in the central nervous system , more precisely the brain and the spinal cord. These cellular receptors are responsible for our body’s reaction to endocannabinoids, but also to active compounds found in marijuana.
A foundational course designed to introduce healthcare professionals to the endocannabinoid system and its therapeutic potential. In partnership with Havas ECS, we offer this comprehensive training curriculum for all levels of students—from healthcare professionals to patients, parents, caregivers, and budtenders. With three different course offerings, you can choose to learn the basics of the endocannabinoid system or earn continuing medical education credits in either a 3-CME course or 12-CME course described below.
The truth is, CBD works to inhibit CB1 receptors when administered along with low doses of THC . For this reason, CBD doesn’t have intoxicating properties — it won’t get you high. One study found that a cannabis extract containing small amounts of THCA and another cannabinoid called CBG was more effective in treating breast cancer cells than pure THC.
Full-spectrum CBD – With all of the flavonoids and terpenes, full-spectrum CBD benefits from the Entourage Effect. The presence of the phytochemicals and nutrients increases the physiological impact of CBD. Skin – Sebocytes are natural, oil-producing glands on the surface of your skin and scalp. At times, these glands can become imbalanced, and produce either too little or too much oil. In the 21st century, people are turning away from more chemical, pharmaceutical solutions to their everyday issues and have been returning to their roots – plant-based botanicals. Users tout CBD’s ability to help them manage everyday stresses, decrease irritability and inflammation, and may ease activity-related muscular or joint pain.
We’ve decided to talk about other cannabinoids that aren’t found in cannabis plants as a final bit. The endocannabinoid system is pretty vast, and we won’t pretend that the overall mechanism is simple. Modern science is still annabiol huile de cbd investigating this system and many other relevant physiological functions. However, global research has made a lot of progress in understanding the ECS, and it is a joy for us to share the details with interested readers.
Across cultures and building through the 19th century, extractions of the cannabis plant were widely used for a number of medicinal purposes. For nearly 50 years, marijuana fell from popular pharmacopeia and was labelled as illicit in the minds of Americans. The Endocannabinoid system was discovered in 1995 during THC trials. A research team—led by Dr. Linda Matsuda—discovered a complex network of endocannabinoid receptors.
Do you want to know what food and activities can enhance your own endocannabinoid function? Endocannabinoids are involved in placebo induced analgesia responses. Make an appointment to learn more about the beneficial effects of medical marijuana. Darlene Mea is a long-standing media personality in the world of alternative everything. Since the early 1980s she has been involved in television, radio, print and multi-media.
Likewise, supplementing the body’s own systems with endocannabinoids can help reverse health problems stemming from other causes and stresses. As such, more and more medical practitioners and clinicians are opening up to the idea that phytocannabinoids, and CBD in particular, have powerful therapeutic potential in a variety of different ailments, and a very low risk of side effects. While supplementing with CBD, or any natural supplement, is never a magic bullet, the science is getting clearer each and every day.
Podcast: Raising Cannabis Capital Featuring Pete Karabas Of Key Investment Partners
I have cannabis and cancer and very recently added two years to my husband’s life with cannabis. I cannot afford licenses and all that’s involved in it and I’m 70 years old I just want to know. I want to know where and if I can get a printed copy of this it is so well-written. Anandamide’s “forgetting” function is also very important for traumatic and extremely stressful events, and people suffering from PTSD have a very hard time disconnecting from the trauma they’ve experienced. Even though we don’t understand everything, the ongoing research has provided us with great insight about the functioning of the ECS, and the extremely diverse roles of these endogenous compounds. Fast forward several decades and we now know that this system has an incredibly beneficial influence on practically every other system in the body.
The Endocannabinoid System was discovered in the 1990’s and, ever since, has been a growing field of scientific research. The Doctors Knox, a family of physicians, have been involved in this specialty since they began signing patient authorizations after successful decades in their specialty medical practices. Now they are found speaking throughout the country about the human Endocannabinoid System, what it is, and how cannabis works with it for the betterment of multitudes. She got her degree in environmental studies and social justice, with a focus on plant medicine from the Evergreen State College. She is a freelance writer, consultant, and project manager with over 13 years of experience in the cannabis and herbal medicine space. Her main objectives are fighting for the right to use plants, implementing social justice approaches in the cannabis industry, as well as encouraging sustainable agricultural practices.
Although certain conditions are better treated by specific compounds, current science suggests that the cannabinoids work best when used in harmony with one another. While there are many kinds of cannabinoids, CBD is so loved because it is a non-psychotropic how long does cbd oil last before it expires cannabinoid. CBD does not produce psychoactive or euphoric sensations when absorbed into your body’s endocannabinoid system; it does not make you feel high, instead, it helps you to relax and soften into your mind, not get out of your mind.
It is these types of signals that provide a likely target for obesogens that have shown to have weight altering effects. The endocannabinoid system sends its messages by working the opposite way from neurons. Once a postsynaptic neuron has been activated, cannabinoids are produced from our fat cells found in the neuron.
She explains what the endocannabinoid system is and why it is so central to our mental health, and describes the ways #CBD replenishes endocannabinoids to provide successful, sustainable and natural recovery from mental health symptoms. The endocannabinoid system is related to cannabis because the ECS is the only reason cannabis works in the body and brain. The endocannabinoid system works through three elements — enzymes, endocannabinoids, and receptors — all endogenous, meaning made in the body. For this new decade, therapeutic exploitation of the ECS needs to be explored from a wider perspective.
CB1 receptors are found in the central nervous system, especially in areas responding to harmful stimuli, short-term memory, and basal ganglia. They are also found in the peripheral nerves, reproductive organs, bones, and most body tissues. Once activated, CB1 receptors respond to and modulate psychoactivity, inflammatory response, pain control, appetite, sleep, and memory.
Researchers are growing increasingly skeptical of the idea that CBD binds with CB1 and CB2 receptors like THC does. The emerging hypothesis is that CBD binds to another ECS receptor we haven’t quite discovered yet. MJNA’s extensive collection of research into the conditions affected by cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system.
This sets off a process to slow down nerve signals like a dimmer on a light switch. Russo used to group clinical conditions in which the ECS shows imbalance or failure, whether as a result of its primary dysfunction or of another disease. Typically in brain cells or neurons, messages are passed from one neuron to the next in a bucket brigade-type fashion.
As these Cannabinoid Receptors are ‘activated’, they direct the passage of neurotransmitters through to other cells. This process further sends chemical messages to the nerve cells calling out for required adjustments. Unlike all other known receptor systems, biological information via the ECS flows backwards, or “upstream,” in contrast to traditional neural pathways – a process known as retrograde transmission. This is one of the ways that the ECS protects the nervous system from hyperactivity during seizures.
Both endogenous and exogenous cannabinoids have been found to be involved in normal GI function. Anandamide and THC delay gastric emptying, gastric secretions and reduce intestinal motility with CBD emitting anti-emetic effects which have been widely researched. CBD has been shown to help diminish the inflammatory process in Chron’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Functions of the ECS include neuro-regulation by modulating the release of neurotransmitters, both excitatory and inhibitory, with a major role in neurophysiology within the body. The CB1 receptor, prolific in the central nervous system, when activated, always results in a reduction of neurotransmitter release by the negative feedback process of retrograde inhibition of pre-ganglionic neurones.
TRP ion channel function in sensory transduction and cellular signaling cascades, 69-84. Researchers are discovering new enzymes, receptors, and cannabinoid-related molecules every year, and it’s still unclear how much of it works and ties together. The next logical step was to look for the ligand that these receptors “receive” or attach to; being scientists, they knew there had to be an endogenous source. Sure enough, after many failed attempts and with a different perspective, scientists isolated a lipid cannabinoid-like component.
What Is The Endocannabinoid System?
However, GAT211 is a racemic mixture meaning that in vivo assays will need to be revised with the resolved enantiomers, GAT228 and GAT229 . Effectively, the enantiomers showed different pharmacological profiles. GAT228 is a partial allosteric agonist and GAT229 is considered PAM. Moreover, they have been suggested to bind different allosteric binding sites . CB2 receptors float around the body through the bloodstream, mostly attached to immune cells, but they can also be found in certain regions of the brain. CB2 receptors are crucial for relieving pain, reducing inflammation and protecting nerve cells from damage and degeneration.
The Endocannabinoid System plays a major role in our overall health, and opportunities for therapeutic potential seem to be almost endless. With any system that affects so many areas of the body, we see both the power to heal and the tendency for unwanted side effects. But research on the ECS is in its infancy, and hope is on the horizon–for those who suffer from so many various conditions, research into the ECS may help pave the way toward a happier, healthier life. Not to be confused with transdermal, topical products are local, not systemic–they don’t reach the bloodstream, so they only affect the area applied.
The answer to this lies in the fact that the endocannabinoid system has only recently been discovered. To this date, over 110 cannabinoids have been identified, with more expected to be discovered in the future. Endo stands for endogenous, which means originating within the body. Cannabinoid refers to the group of compounds that activate this system.
When the immune system is working hard but potentially damaging tissues, the endocannabinoid system can dampen it. When the central nervous system is firing strongly, but has been doing so for too long, the endocannabinoid system comes along to quiet it down. Phytocannabinoids are the kind that we find in plants such as cannabis.
Get equipped with everything you need to start treating patients with medicinal cannabis. The pancreas is an elongated organ located toward the back of the abdomen behind the stomach. One part of the pancreas, the exocrine pancreas, secretes digestive enzymes.
Where “normal” anterograde neurotransmitters travel one-way down the signaling pathway of a neural network, retrograde neurotransmitters can also travel back up that same pathway. When this happens, it modulates communication between the cells that were activated by the anterograde neurotransmitter, in effect “dimming” the signal. Our digestive, reproductive, and nervous systems dominate the limelight in terms of our biological functions.
CECD isn’t a disease itself, but is an umbrella term that encompasses the conditions with these features. There is some research being conducted that CECD may play a role with Fibromyalgia, migraine headaches and irritable bowel syndrome . Lots more time passed, and scientists didn’t figure out that THC was the active constituent of cannabis until 1964. In 1992 the first endocannabinoid, anandamide, was discovered, and in 1995 they found the second one, 2-AG. And the four main enzymes were discovered in 1993, 2002, 2003 and 2004 . When the ECS is working properly, the body remains in a state of homeostasis – a kind of dynamic equilibrium, or “Goldilocks zone” – where everything is just right.
Structure of endocannabinoids AEA and 2-AG, phytocannabinoids Δ9-THC and CBD; and synthetic derivatives WIN55,212-2, ORG27569, PNR-4-20 and AMB-FUBINACA. The Cannabidiol in CBDPure is a natural constituent of industrial hemp plant and grown in the United States of America. CBDPure does not sell or distribute any products that are in violation of the United States Controlled Substances Act . THC interacts directly with your CB1 and CB2 receptors, producing the “high” feeling that many experience. This high occurs when the ECS becomes overwhelmed, and will go away within a few hours, typically.
Pharmacological research can lead to new drug discoveries, and promote a better understanding of human physiology. Students of pharmacology must have a detailed working knowledge of aspects in physiology, pathology, and chemistry. They may also require knowledge of plants as sources of pharmacologically-active compounds.
The endocannabinoid network connects to our nervous system and brain, our immune system, our digestive tract, our skin, inflammation, pain perception, and much more. The cannabinoid receptors of our skin will interact with cannabinoids within topical products. These same receptor CBD Snacks types will interact with cannabinoids that enter circulation and pass through the blood-brain barrier. The endocannabinoids activate their G-protein coupled CB1 and CB2 receptor counterparts. Anandamide is found throughout your brain, central nervous system, and other organs.
The ECS is a complex network of endocannabinoids, enzymes that synthesize or break them down, and receptor sites. In simple terms, CB1 is most concentrated in the brain and nervous system while CB2 is most concentrated within the cells and organs of the immune system. The endocannabinoid most researched in pain is palmitoylethanolamide. Palmitoylethanolamide has been evaluated for its analgesic actions in a great variety of pain indications and found to be safe and effective.
On the other hand, treatment of normal rats or ob/ob mice with leptin caused decreases in hypothalamic levels of the endocannabinoids. These findings suggest that hypothalamic endocannabinoids may play an important role in mediating the appetite‐suppressant effects of leptin. At some stages during development these effects of endocannabinoids may be of critical importance. This may play an important role in the control of neural circuits, particularly in cerebellum and hippocampus . Exogenously administered THC or other cannabinoids cannot mimic the physiological effects of locally released endocannabinoids. Unfortunately, much of this research would now be regarded as inadequately controlled and poorly designed.
Although there are signs of mild cognitive impairment in chronic cannabis users there is little evidence that such impairments are irreversible, or that they are accompanied by drug‐induced neuropathology. A proportion of regular users of cannabis develop tolerance and dependence on the drug. Some studies have linked chronic use of cannabis with an increased risk of psychiatric illness, but there is little evidence for any causal link. The potential medical applications of cannabis in the treatment of painful muscle spasms and other symptoms of multiple sclerosis are currently being tested in clinical trials.
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Endocannabinoids are synthesized on a need basis and are quickly degraded by metabolic enzymes afterwards. Cannabidiol is a phytocannabinoid that has shown effectiveness in relieving anxiety, stress, insomnia and digestive issues in pets. The endocannabinoid system is present in all mammals including dogs, cats, horses and other mammals. Stop by Torrey Holistics, San Diego’s finest legal medical marijuana dispensary, and a Cannabis Consultant will be happy to share more knowledge and tips 1 on 1. The cannabinoid system helps plants ward off predatory insects while attracting beneficial pollinators and helps them survive harsh climatic conditions such as frost, heat and dehydration. Alan Brochstein’s 420 Investor is the go-to community for investors to learn, explore, and profit from the marijuana companies.
However, eating your cannabis provides a very different experience from smoking or vaping. For one thing, before cannabis can reach the bloodstream after being eaten, it must pass through the liver, where it undergoes first-pass metabolism. In an attempt to do its duty, the liver breaks down many of the cannabinoids present, which gives oral cannabis a bioavailability of anywhere from 4-20%. It’s possible that studies using the whole cannabis plant may see quite different outcomes from those using isolated cannabinoids. Some of the research being done on the ECS uses purified versions of THC and/or CBD, in which the compound of interest is isolated from all other compounds found in the cannabis plant. This is a natural thing for scientists to do in order to reduce confounding variables and test the effects of each molecule alone.
That’s to say, when an endogenous cannabinoid fits into a cannabinoid receptor, it can heighten that receptor’s activity or it can dampen it. The next most important part of the endocannabinoid system puzzle is endogenous cannabinoids. These are chemicals produced from within your very own body that are essentially cannabinoids.
There are also very high densities in the basal ganglia and in the cerebellum (Fig. Medical scientists validate patient accounts of CBD & cannabis for symptom relief. Perfluorooctanoic acid is a surfactant used for reduction of friction, and it is also used in nonstick cookware. PFOA has been detected in the blood of more than 98% of the general US population. Animal studies have shown that prenatal exposure to PFOA is linked to obesity when reaching adulthood.
These receptors have also been implicated in the migration of B cells into the marginal zone and the regulation of IgM levels. In the adult brain, the endocannabinoid system facilitates the neurogenesis of hippocampal granule cells. In the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus, multipotent neural progenitors give rise to daughter cells that, over the course of several weeks, mature into granule cells whose axons project to and synapse onto dendrites on the CA3 region. NPs in the hippocampus have been shown to possess fatty acid amide hydrolase and express CB1 and utilize 2-AG. Intriguingly, CB1 activation by endogenous or exogenous cannabinoids promote NP proliferation and differentiation; this activation is absent in CB1 knockouts and abolished in the presence of antagonist.
Then, to keep everyone on their toes, you have rogue cannabinoids like cannabidiol that have an obvious effect, but no one quite knows how. Some of the other compounds found in CBD are terpenes and flavonoids. Scientists, researchers, and will delta-10 thc get you high wellness experts agree that the cannabinoids in hemp may work more effectively when they are in the presence of these other naturally-occurring compounds. Many people believe it works by preventing the breakdown of endocannabinoids.
The ECS is a target in the treatment of cancer, and its effects could be two-fold. It’s ok once in a while, like when the excessive signaling is because of THC, but scientists believe there’s a link between ECS hyperactivity, obesity, and eating disorders. Understanding how to influence CB1 could be a breakthrough for some of these issues. Because the ECS affects buy 15 mg full spectrum cbd oil so much, researchers are beginning to look at it for new ways to treat disease. Remember that numbing burn that creeps to the back of your throat and continues through the digestive tract after eating a habanero? What about that intense pain that seeps into your lungs, crawls up your nostrils, and fills your eyes after getting sprayed with pepper spray?
Meant for the education of nurses, I think it would also do the public in general a great service if they were to have access to the information. While these systems of cell communication is nearly as old as the human race; the EndoCannabinoid system is only just beginning to be explored by scientists and doctors. EndoCannabinoids bind to EndoCannabinoid receptors in whatever part of the body they’re needed. You might think that these actions are extraneous to the importance of the endocannabinoid system. Even these metabolic enzymes can be targets for therapeutic actions.
This list includes difficult conditions like Parkinson’s, multiple sclerosis, and even cancer. No matter the source, each plays a distinct role in regulating the response of the endocannabinoid system. Dysfunction of the ECS has been implicated in many diseases and conditions. The ability of synthetic and plant-derived cannabinoids to mimic the body’s natural endocannabinoids has opened the door for using medical cannabis as a potential treatment. Now that you are aware of how the ECS plays such a prominent role in regulating various functions and processes of the body, what does Delta-8 do in all of this?
There are only a handful known as of now, but the two major ones are Anandamide and 2-AG or 2-arachidonoyl glycerol. Let’s just call it 2-AG, depending on which key is used, and the location of the lock (stomach vs. say your lungs) dictates what response your body has. The endocannabinoid system is considered a potent mediator in the central nervous system. It interacts with your entire body with receptors in the brain, gut, lungs, reproductive organs, liver, and elsewhere. Imagine the cannabinoids you have ingested today, swirling around your bloodstream and interacting with every tissue site in the body via the CB1 and CB2 receptors.
The system also involves neurons projecting out of the sensory pathways, directly into the sensory cortex. Every conscious or unconscious function of the mind can be traced back or mapped to some part of the brain, which is one of the most complex organizations of matter in the universe. The mind is projected by the brain and its every process has an origin in some actual neuronal network. The reticular activating system acts like the ignition system of the brain, that awakens an individual from sleep to a state of heightened awareness.
These enzymes break down anandamide, one of our body’s naturally produced endocannabinoids which are very similar in molecular structure to CBD. This is why CBD can be such a potent cbd gummies for kids anti-inflammatory and analgesic agent without any psychoactive effects. The ECS is located in the mammalian brain and throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems.
Exercise boosts the levels of endocannabinoids, and some have pain-relieving properties. More importantly, there might be a connection between the ECS and how physical activity improves and influences the quality of life while aging. Unfortunately, cancer cells tend to have elevated levels of endocannabinoids. The aggressiveness of cancer seems to be tied to the endocannabinoids’ concentration and metabolism. The stress response can also be affected by an ECS that’s not functioning correctly. According to one theory, impaired signaling from either the ligands or the receptors might result in stress response activation or inappropriate stress adaption.
Presynaptically located CB1 cannabinoid receptors regulate GABA release from axon terminals of specific hippocampal interneurons. Isolation and measurement of the endogenous cannabinoid receptor agonist, anandamide, in brain and peripheral tissues of human and rat. This hypothesis has been supported independently by neurophysiological cbd fruchtgummis kaufen sarah’s blessing findings, as described below. Bisphenol-A is an industrial chemical and organic compound that has been used in the production of plastics and resins for over a half-century. It is used in products such as toys, medical devices, plastic food and beverage containers, shower curtains, dental sealants and compounds, and register receipts.
Cannabidiol is one of the over 100 phytocannabinoids (ph-eye-toh-can-ah-bin-oids) in the cannabis sativa genus of plants. A cannabinoid (can-ah-bin-oid) is one of the many diverse chemical compounds that acts on cannabinoid receptors in the endocannabinoid (end-oh-can-ah-bin-oid) system. Obesogenic drugs and chemicals have been shown to target transcription regulators found in gene networks that function to control intracellular lipid homeostasis and proliferation and differentiation on adipocytes. The major group of regulators that is targeted is a group of nuclear hormone receptors known as peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARα, δ, and γ). To become active and properly function as metabolic sensors and transcription regulators, the PPAR receptors must heterodimerize with another receptor known as the 9-cis retinoic acid receptor .